Grose's Academic pages

DEVICE MANAGEMENT

 

 

 


BY:
Captain Jason D. Grose, USMC
Lieutenant Sam Chance, USN
Lieutenant Joachim Richter, German Navy
Lieutenant Errol Campbell, USN
Major Clyde Richards, USA

FOR
CS3030
17 September 2001
(slides for this paper)
 
INTRODUCTION

The topic of device management, while initially appearing rather simple, involves intricate details that effect the entire computing system. It is so important, that to do justice to the concept, it is necessary to study aspects leading up to the overall device management goal: to ensure the devices connected to a computer work in harmony.

In this paper, we will give the ready the basic theory of device management. In order to provide concrete examples, we then compare two different software operating systems to show how each addresses device management in two different ways.

Explaining the software portion of device management would quite literally cover merely half the equation. To complete our overview, we will discuss how hardware is also vital to successful device management.

Finally, we will introduce an exciting new technology that we feel is the future of device management. This technology promises to overcome some of the shortcomings of software and hardware conflicts pertaining to device management. But before we get to that, we will provide a quick overview of basic device management theory.

 

THEORY OF DEVICE MANAGEMENT

To understand device management, it is necessary to begin with an explanation of devices.  Devices generally fall into one of three categories: dedicated, shared and virtual.  Dedicated devices are assigned to only one job at a time.  Examples may include tape drives, printers, and plotters.  The disadvantage of dedicated devices is they must be allocated to a single user for the duration of a job’s execution.  Devices in the next two categories are generally preferred.  Shared devices can be assigned several processes.  The assigned processes are interleaved and carefully controlled by the device manager.  Any conflicts are resolved based on predetermined policies.  Virtual devices are a combination of the other two; that is, they are dedicated devices which have been transformed into shared devices.  For example printers may use a spooling program the reroutes all print requests to a disk.

Next, we must understand different media devices we will address later.  Storage media are divided into two groups: sequential access media and direct access media devices.  As their names imply one accesses data, or records, one at a time; whereas, direct access can store or access records sequentially or directly.  Speed and sharability are primary tradeoffs.

 

Sequential Access Media

As an alternative to paper storage media, magnetic tape was developed for routine secondary storage.  It is now used for routine archiving and storing back up data.

Data, or records, on magnetic tape are stored serially, one after the other.  Each record is physically located at some position on the tape.  Therefore the tape must forwarded, or reversed, to the physical location of the record resulting in a very time-consuming task.

The tape consists of tracks; one track for each data bit, plus an additional track for parity.  The number of characters that can be stored on a given length of tape is determined by the density of the tape.

Records may be stored individually or in blocks.  “Blocking” records increases the speed at which records may be accessed, known as transfer rate.  Additionally, more data may be stored on a given length of tape as less “overhead” is required to manage the records.  Still, magnetic tape is a poor choice for routine secondary storage as average access time is too great.

 

Direct Access Media

Direct access storage devices, also known as random access storage devices, are devices that can read or write to a specific place.  Two general categories are fixed head and movable head devices.

Fixed head drums represent an example of early types of these devices.  They were very fast, but very expensive and held less data.  Fixed head disks are a similar concept, just on a different plane.  Tracks are comprised of concentric circles on each platter, or disk.  While fixed head devices are faster than movable head devices, they store less data and are more expensive.

Movable head devices have one read/write head that floats over the surface of the disk.  If disks are “stacked” with a read/write head for each platter, a virtual cylinder is formed.  Using the same track (i.e., track zero) on each platter to store data results in faster write times, and illustrates the data cylinder, or drum, concept.

 

Access Time

Access time can be affected by as many as three important factors: seek time, search time, and transfer time.  Seek time (the slowest of the three) is the time it takes to position the head over the desired location on the disk  Search time, or rotational delay is the time it takes to rotate the disk until the desired track is under the head.  Finally, transfer time, the fastest of the three, is the time it takes to move/copy the data from the disk to main memory.  For fixed head devices, access time equals search time plus transfer time.  Whereas, for movable head devices, access time is seek time plus search time plus transfer time.  Still, movable head devices are more common as they store more data and cost less.

 

CD Technology

CD-ROMs are an example of optical disc storage.  They provide high density, reliable storage.  The optical disc drive functions similarly to the magnetic drive.  Two of the most important parameters of optical disc drives are sustained data transfer rate and average access time.  Both of these have improved over time as the technology has advanced from single-speed to hex-speed drives.  Another important feature is cache size which acts as a buffer by transferring anticipated blocks of data to memory for readily available use.

 

I/O subsystem

The components of the I/O subsystem consist of the I/O channels, I/O control units, and I/O devices (e.g. disk drives, tape drives, printers, etc.).

The pieces of the I/O subsystem must work in harmony.  An analogy we will use is a mythical taxicab company dispatcher.  The dispatcher handles incoming calls as they arrive and finds transportation.  The dispatcher organizes the calls in an order most efficient for his available resources.  Once the order is set the dispatcher communicates with the drivers who (ideally) pick up and deliver the passengers.  As you might imagine, problems or “conflicts” inevitably occur.

The I/O subsystem’s components function similarly.  The channel keeps up with I/O requests from the CPU and passes them down the line to the appropriate control unit (taxicab/driver).  The I/O devices act as the vehicles.
I/O Channels

I/O channels are placed between the CPU and the control units and they synchronize the fast speed of the CPU with the slower I/O devices. They make it possible for I/O operations and processor operations to overlap so the CPU and I/O can process concurrently.  Channels use channel programs  which specify the action to be performed by the devices and controls data transmission between main memory and the control units.  The channel sends one signal for each function, which is interpreted by the I/O control unit.

Channels are as fast as the CPU.  Thus they are able to direct several control units by interleaving commands (just as several taxicab drivers can be controlled by one dispatcher).  Additionally, each control unit can control several devices.

Greater flexibility can be achieved by connecting more than one channel to a control unit or by connecting more than one control unit to a device.  These multiple paths increase reliability as redundancy is built into the system.

To keep the device manager running efficiently three problems must be resolved:
 

- The device manager must know which components are free or busy
 

- It must be able to accommodate requests that enter during heavy I/O traffic

- It must accommodate the disparity of speeds between the CPU and the I/O devices

 

Channel Status Word

The I/O operation’s completion is signaled by a hardware flag that is tested by the CPU.  This flag is made up of three bits and resides in the Channel Status Word, a pre-defined location in main memory.  Each component of the I/O subsystem, channel, control unit, and device, is represented by one of the three bits.
Polling and Interrupts

There are two common methods used to test the status of I/O paths: polling and interrupts.

Polling uses a special machine instruction to routinely check the flag status.  The disadvantage to polling is the frequency at which the flag is tested.  If the flag is tested too frequently, processor time is wasted.  If it is checked to seldom, the device may remain idle too long.

Interrupts are more efficient for testing the flag.  A hardware mechanism test the flag during each machine cycle, instead of the CPU.  Thus, status of I/O devices is continually monitored.  Devices are employed using a pre-defined priority scheme.

Direct memory access (DMA) is a technique that allows a control unit to access main memory directly. In this scheme the majority of the required data for a given operation is transferred to and from memory without CPU intervention.  The frees the CPU to execute other tasks.

Buffers are used to synchronize data movement between relatively slow devices and the very fast CPU.  Buffers are implemented at various places in the system, and temporarily store data.
I/O Requests

The device manager divides I/O requests into three parts, with each part handled by a specific software component of the I/O subsystem (i.e., I/O traffic controller, I/O scheduler, and I/O device handler).

The I/O traffic controller monitors the status of every device.  Its three main tasks include determining if at least one path is available, which path to select if more than one is available, and if all paths are busy, when one will be open.  To achieve these tasks it uses a database containing the status and connections of each unit in the I/O subsystem.

The I/O scheduler allocates the devices, control units and channels.  Some systems allow the I/O scheduler to give preferential treatment to I/O requests from “high-priority” programs.  The I/O scheduler synchronizes its work with the traffic controller to satisfy I/O requests.

The I/O device handler processes I/O interrupts, handles error conditions, and provides detailed scheduling algorithms, which are extremely device dependent.  Each I/O device has its own algorithm.

 

Common Seek Strategies

A seek strategy for the I/O device handler is the predetermined policy that the device handler uses to allocate access to a device.  It determines the order in which the processes access the device.  Minimal seek time is the goal.

Some of the most common seek strategies include First Come First Served (FCFS), Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF), , and SCAN and its variations: LOOK, N-step SCAN, C-SCAN, and C-LOOK.

A seek strategy should minimize mechanical (arm) movement, minimize average response time, and minimize variance in response time.

FCFS is the simplest algorithm to implement; however, on average, it does not achieve any of the three goals.  FCFS is a disadvantage due to extreme arm movement  (e.g., track 0, 13, 2,…)

SSTF is advantageous in that it minimizes overall seek time; however, its disadvantageous in that it favors easy-to-reach jobs, and postpones traveling to those that are out of the way.

SCAN uses a directional bit to indicate whether arm movement is toward or away from the center of the disk.  The arm moves methodically back and forth from the outer track to the inner track servicing requests in its path.

LOOK, also known as the elevator algorithm, is a variation of SCAN.  In this model the arm does not necessarily go all the way to either edge unless there are requests there.  It effectively “looks ahead” for requests.

N-step SCAN holds all requests until the arm starts on its way back.  Requests that arrive while the arm is in motion are grouped together for the arm’s next sweep.

With C-SCAN (Circular-SCAN), the arm picks up requests on its INWARD sweep. After reaching innermost track arm moves immediately to the outer track and begins servicing requests as it moves toward the center again.  C-SCAN is designed to provide a more UNIFORM wait time.

C-LOOK is an optimization of C-SCAN; that is, it looks ahead to the highest track with a request and goes to it and not simply to the outermost track.

Which is best?  It depends!

FCFS is good for light loads
SSTF is good for moderate loads
SCAN is good for light to moderate loads and eliminates the problem of postponement
C-SCAN works well with moderate to heavy loads

The best algorithm may be a combination of more than one scheme.

To successfully control hardware, software known as the operating system (OS) is used to interface hardware and application software.  Just as several different types of hardware exists, various OS’s are employed on computers.  Of course, there are innumerable software applications which allow users to complete the endless variety of tasks.  We will now compare two of them.

 

SOFTWARE APPLICATION

Computer peripheral units such as printers, plotters, tape drives, disk drives, keyboards or terminals are very common devices. Because of their various characteristics, they need to be managed by an operating system in order to meet both the users´ and the devices´ needs.
In the following portion, we point out the differences of how the to different operating systems -Windows 2000 and UNIX – fulfil these differing needs.

 

Windows 2000

Windows 2000 is a menu-driven operating system (OS) that uses graphical user interface (GUI) as its primary method of communication with the user. The majority of Windows 2000 is written in the language of “C” and the graphic component is written in “C++.” Windows 2000 is a pre-emptive, multitasking, multithreaded operating system, i.e. it allows a process to break up into several threads of execution.

The Input-Output (I/O) system within Windows 2000 is packet driven which basically means that every I/O request represented by an I/O request packet (IRP) as it moves from one component to another. This IRP is a data structure that controls the I/O operation at each step.
What is the device-manager within Windows 2000?

The path between the operating system and virtually all the hardware not on the computer’s motherboard goes through a special program called a driver. Each device has his own driver whose task is as a translator between the electrical signals of the hardware and the programming language of the OS and application programs.

The I/O manager creates the IRP and passes it to the appropriate driver, disposing the packet when the operation is complete. On the other hand, when a driver receives an IRP from the I/O manager, it performs the operation. Afterwards, it passes the IRP back to the I/O manager or passes the packet through the I/O manger to a different driver for further processing.

In addition, the I/O manager manages buffers for I/O requests, provides time-out support for drivers, and keeps track of which file systems are loaded into the OS. One of the main managing tasks for the I/O manager is to determine which driver is to be called to process a request. For example, when a process needs to open a file several times the I/O manager is to call the appropriate driver. Therefore the I/O manager creates a driver object and a device object to locate the needed information the next time a process uses the same file. When the file is opened, the I/O manager creates a file object and returns a file handle to the process. Therefore, whenever the process uses this file handle, the I/O manager can immediately find the device object again.

The advantage of using objects in order to keep track of information about drivers is that the I/O manager does not have to know details about individual drivers.  Instead, it follows a pointer to locate the needed driver; a pointer from the device object which received an I/O request and points back to it’s driver object. Moreover, it is easy to assign drivers to control additional or different devices.

 

UNIX

We explained that Windows 2000 controls devices with a hard coded program built into each device.  Conversely, UNIX treats devices differently, i.e. it treats them as a special type of file.  Stored in device directory, these specials files within UNIX OS are given descriptors that are able to identify the devices and contain information about them.

UNIX, like Windows 2000, is written in “C” and uses a GUI. It’s device drivers are part of the UNIX kernel and when a UNIX OS is purchased, it comes with device drivers to operate the most common peripheral devices.  But note that there is no single standardized version of the UNIX OS although it is able to run on all sizes of computers using a wide range of microprocessors.

 

Device Classifications

UNIX divides the I/O system into two separate systems: the block I/O system and the character I/O system.  Each device is identified by two numbers (the minor and the major device number) and a class. Each Class has a configuration table that contains an array of entry points into the device drivers and is the only connection between the system code and the device drivers.

The block I/O system is used for devices that can be addressed as a sequence of 512-byte blocks. This allows the device manager to use buffering to reduce the I/O traffic. The Least-Recently-Used (LRU) policy  is used to empty a buffer to make room for a new block. Every time a read command is issued, the I/O buffer list is searched. If the requested data is already in a buffer, it is made available to the process. If not, the data is physically moved from secondary storage to an available buffer.

Within the character I/O system are devices which are handled by drivers implementing character lists. Here is how it operates: a subroutine puts a character on the list or queue, and another subroutine retrieves the character from the list. Some devices can actually belong to both classes – i.e. disk drives and tape drives.

As mentioned earlier, UNIX uses directory files to handle devices. These special files are used to maintain the hierarchical structure of the file system. Users are allowed to read information in directory files but only the system is allowed to modify them.

The UNIX file management system organizes the disk into blocks of 512 bytes each and divides the disk in four different region:
1. the first region is reserved for booting,
2. region contains the size of the disk and the boundaries of the other regions,
3. the third region includes a list of file definitions, called the I-list and
4. the fourth region holds free blocks available for storage. Actually device management within UNIX OS is file management.

The advantage of  keeping device drivers as part of the OS and not as part of the devices themselves is that UNIX can be configured to run any device as long as the system administrator is capable of changing the necessary code.

The choice between these two operating systems depends heavily on individual needs and abilities.  While the Windows family of products are more widely used partly due to its ease, the UNIX systems trades that simplicity for more control over the system.  Next we will discuss how device management is controlled using two different hardware vice software applications.

 

HARDWARE APPLICATION

 In understanding how a computer’s Input/Output subsystem handles its devices, we must also understand how those devices are interfaced with the computer’s Central Processing Unit (CPU). In a typical personal computer (PC), there are several I/O buses, which connect the CPU to its other components (except Random Access Memory (RAM)). Such buses are the “highways” in which data are moved from one component to another or from component to CPU or RAM. Essentially, I/O buses are extensions to the system bus (at a slower speed to accommodate slower devices). On a modern PC Motherboard, the following I/O buses are typical:

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus is the high-speed bus of the 1990s. It is used today’s and other computers for connecting adapters, such as network-controllers, graphics cards, sound cards, etc. The PCI bus is 32 bits wide, normally runs at 33 MHz, and supports a maximum throughput of 132 MBps. The bus is processor independent and  can be used with 32 or 64 bit processors.

The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus is an old, low speed bus that is still a mainstay in even the newest computers, despite the fact that it is largely unchanged since it was expanded to 16 bits in 1984.15 It has a bus speed of 8 MHz..

The Advanced Graphic Port (AGP) bus is now commonly solely is used for the graphics card. AGP is essentially a 66 MHz PCI bus, which has been enhanced with other technologies making it suitable for the graphics system.

 

Performance Factors

There are several performance factors which make the PCI bus an ideal choice for handling a systems most demanding I/O requirements. Four of these factors are burst mode, bus mastering, high bandwidth, and expansion.

Burst Mode: Once an initial address is provided, the PCI bus can transfer multiple sets of data in a row (a burst of information).

Bus Mastering: The capability of devices on the PCI bus to take control of the bus and perform transfers directly. The PCI design supports full device bus mastering, in that it allows bus mastering of multiple devices on the bus simultaneously. It has arbitration circuitry that works to ensure no device on the bus locks out any other device.  At the same time it allows any given device to use the full bus throughput if no other device needs to transfer anything.

High Bandwidth: Current PCI specifications call for expandability to 64 bits and 66 MHz speed which, if implemented, would quadruple bandwidth over the current design. This design does currently exist on non-PC platforms and servers; however, mainstream PCI is still limited to 32 bits and 33 MHz.16

Expansion: The PCI bus offers a great variety of expansion cards compared other system I/O buses. The most commonly found cards are video cards, SCSI host adapters, and high-speed networking cards. Hard disk drives are also on the PCI bus but are normally connected directly to the motherboard on a PCI system.

As all these factors make the PCI bus a good choice for device integration.  As a result, it has become the most task saturated I/O bus on today’s systems. How are the devices integrated?

 

Interface Types

The two most common types of interfaces between the CPU and a PC’s peripheral devices are SCSI and IDE. SCSI stands for “Small Computer Systems Interface” while IDE stands for “Integrated Device Electronics.” Each interface requires the use of a host adapter whose job is to act as the gateway between the SCSI or IDE bus and the PC’s internal I/O bus. Normally that is the PCI bus since it supports the fastest transfer rates of the PC’s I/O buses. It sends and responds to commands and transfers data to and from devices on the bus and inside the computer itself.

 

SCSI Interface

In the SCSI interface, devices on the SCSI bus talk to the computer through a single device on the SCSI bus – called the controller or host adapter. The controller sends and responds to commands from the CPU via its interface on the PCI bus. The SCSI bus is able to manage several devices because each one has the ability to release the bus after being requested to do a time consuming job, therefore leaving the bus free for other devices to use for data transfer or receiving commands.

 

ATA/IDE Interface

The most popular interface used in modern PCs are ATA/IDE – Advanced Technology Attachment/Integrated Device Electronics (names are synonymous). It integrates the hard disk and other IDE devices through an IDE controller (or host adapter), which is normally built into the PC’s motherboard.

There are both physical limitations and technological issues that make both interfaces ideal for certain situations.

 

SCSI Standards

Since 1986, several SCSI standards have been developed. As it became increasingly difficult to continually define one standard, SCSI-3 was established which defined different layers and command subsets and allowed SCSI sub-standards to evolve separately. Some of the key changes in SCI standards have been:
Increase in clock speed from 5 MHz to 40 MHz in the most recent standard.
Increased bus width from 8 (Narrow) to 16 bits (WIDE), essentially doubling the transfer rate.
Command Set Enhancements made it possible to connect other devices that previously required proprietary controllers (CD-ROMS).
Command Queuing – allows multiple requests between devices on the bus.
Double transitioning – allowing two transfers per cycle, increasing overall throughput.

 

IDE Standards

Like SCSI, there have been numerous IDE standards as well. Most modern computers use either ATA/ATAPI-4, 5 or 6; more commonly known as UDMA/33, 66 or 100. The primary advantage over older standards were:
ATAPI (AT Attachment Packet Interface). This allowed the connection of other devices like CD-ROM drives, tape drives, and LS-120 drives to be attached through a common interface.
Direct Memory Access – relieved the CPU and system bus of responsibility handling memory access processes.
Faster clock speeds (33/66/100 MHz) yielded increased throughput.

 

SCSI Performance

In considering performance, there are several key factors that make SCSI an ideal choice for network servers or powerful workstations. The regular SCSI 2 system can handle 8 devices including the adapter itself while SCSI Wide handles 16 devices. Each device has to be assigned a unique number going from ID 0 to ID 7. The SCSI devices can be internal (installed inside the PC cabinet) or external. The host adapter is a device itself, typically occupying ID 7.

SCSI performance is enhanced through its intelligent protocol, which assures maximum utilization of the data transfer.

The basis of SCSI is a set of commands. Each individual device holds its own controller, which interprets these commands through a device driver. The advantage is that all commands within the SCSI system are handled internally, meaning the CPU does not have to control the process. With enhancements to the command sets, SCSI offers the flexibility to connect a multitude of devices (both internal and external) to include: hard drives, CD-ROMS R & RWs, zip drives, tape drives, scanners, and cameras. Conversely,  users are not given as many options with IDE.

 

IDE Performance

Older IDE hard drives used Programmed Input/Output (PIO). This approach placed heavy demands on the CPU whenever the hard drive needed to transfer data to or from memory. To alleviate this, current drives use Direct Memory Access (DMA) where the hard drive has direct access to the memory, freeing up the CPU to accomplish other tasks.

Unlike SCSI, IDE doesn’t offer the flexibility of multiple devices. A typical IDE setup consists of 2 IDE channels (normally designated as primary and secondary) with the option of having two devices per channel (designated as slave and master). Using both channels allows for some multitasking, provided the devices are connected properly. Only the two main controllers (primary and secondary) are capable of multitasking. As such, the two channels can process data simultaneously and independently. Conversely, the two sub-channels (slave and master) do not multitask.  Only one operation is processed at a time, be it on the master or on the slave channel. Until that operation is complete, the channel is unavailable to process further commands, hence it is limited to sequential access.

In the single device environment, the IDE device has a slight edge over SCSI. An IDE utilizing DMA can quickly transfer data to memory because there is less overhead involved. In the case of the single SCSI device, the overhead involved in issuing and moving commands acts as a slight hindrance.

 

Which Is Better?

Because the SCSI bus is managed more intelligently than the IDE bus, SCSI has the clear advantage in the multi-device environment. Because an IDE drive completes access instances sequentially, the channel is unavailable for further commands until the issued command is completed. Conversely, the SCSI bus can queue numerous commands, allowing any of those commands to be completed before the first issued command is completed. The SCSI bus is also able to send commands to each of its devices simultaneously, allowing for true multitasking.

Besides performance, there are several other factors to consider in determining which of the two interfaces is best for a given situation.

Hard drive bandwidth. Though today’s SCSI drives boast maximum transfer rates of over 200MB/sec and 10,000 rpm, the most advanced SCSI-3 (Fast-80DT) only supports a throughput of 160MB/sec. Coupled with such high overhead required for SCSI interfaces, the high rate of throughput in a SCSI system is not fully sustainable and never fully realized. In comparison, a high-end IDE drive offers similar sustained transfer rates since there’s less overhead involved.
Price. IDE is far cheaper than SCSI. There is less overhead involved. Cabling is rather inexpensive since it is shorter and is not required to support such high bandwidths as SCSI. IDE is more supported (controller is built into most motherboards) as well. SCSI devices must  be interfaced with either a SCSI host adapter or a SCSI motherboard, both of which can be costly.
Ease of Setup – SCSI more difficult since its cabling varies for different standards. The host adapter and SCSI devices must be configured and properly terminated. IDE is built into most current motherboards, so configuration is done in the system BIOS (firmware). There is no extra hardware necessary for an IDE setup.


Expansion. IDE limited to up to 4 devices, 2 per IDE channel. SCSI can be either 7 or 15 depending on narrow or wide. SCSI also provides interface for external devices as well as internal. IDE is internal only.

Just as the software was an important individual choice, so does the hardware choice depend on individual needs and trade-offs. But the difficulty in choosing which hardware device to pick is changing. There is a technology on the horizon that promises to simplify the hardware aspect of device management.

 

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

The Uniform Driver Interface, better known as UDI, is a software architecture that enables a single driver source to be used with any hardware platform and any operating system.  Project UDI, an open industry group comprised of architects and engineers from several different OS, system and I/O providers, is developing the architecture and the specifications that define UDI.

Project UDI began in 1993 and has largely been driven as a grass roots effort amongst engineers from companies such as Adaptec, Compaq (originally Digital), Hewlett Packard, IBM, Interphase, Lockheed Martin, NCR, SCO, Sun, and Intel.

 

Concept Overview

Every operating system has its own set of unique interfaces to which driver writers have historically written their device drivers. A UDI environment abstracts these by taking OS-specific services and projecting OS-neutral, strongly-typed procedural calls for use by the driver writer to use instead. These interfaces make up the bulk of the UDI Core Specification. In order to ensure that compatibility between environments and drivers is provided, versioning of these interfaces is strongly enforced.

The UDI core is extended through the use of metalanguages. A UDI metalanguage is a set of interface calls that are specific to a given technology or device model (e.g. SCSI, LAN or USB). All UDI metalanguages share common properties and make use of the generic UDI infrastructure, but are tailored to specific technologies. Supporting a new technology, then, requires the definition and implementation of a new metalanguage.

The environment includes interfaces for configuration, diagnostics, error handling, interrupts, system services and hardware access. UDI thus creates a completely specified and encapsulated environment in which UDI-compliant drivers live. Therefore, UDI drivers are not influenced by OS-specific factors; all those details are hidden within each UDI implementation on each individual OS. This is why UDI-compliant drivers are transparently portable: they are truly OS-neutral.

 

Summary of Benefits

The UDI architecture provides interfaces and services for fully portable device drivers. That is, at the source code level, any driver can be recompiled to operate in any system. The benefit to those using UDI drivers is that a UDI driver written for one OS and platform may be used in any other OS and platform supporting a UDI environment.

There are many differences among current operating systems that influence the environment for device drivers and other kernel modules. Some support kernel threads; others do not. Some support preemption; others do not. Some support dynamically loadable kernel modules; others do not. Variations in memory management and synchronization models also impinge upon the device driver environment.

Operating system differences will likely increase in the future, as vendors move to support distributed systems, fault tolerance/isolation, and other advanced features, using technologies such as “microkernels”, I/O processors, and user-mode drivers.

UDI is operating system neutral. It abstracts OS services and execution environments through a set of interfaces that are designed to hide differences like those listed above. All OS-specific policy and mechanisms are kept out of the device driver. This allows UDI to be supported on a wide range of systems such as traditional OS kernels, client/server LAN OSs, microkernel-based OSs, and distributed or networked OSs.

Variations in hardware platforms add additional challenges such as:
• Devices may be connected via different I/O buses, some proprietary, on different systems.
• Different systems have different types of caches and buffers in I/O data paths.
• Bus bridges in the path to an I/O device may introduce additional alignment constraints.
• The “endianess” (byte ordering) of an I/O card may be different from the endianess of the CPU on which the driver is running.
• Some systems access card registers via special I/O instructions; others use memory-mapped I/O.
• Interrupt notification and masking mechanisms differ greatly from system to system.

UDI is platform neutral. It abstracts all Programmed I/O (PIO), Direct Memory Access (DMA), and interrupt handling through a set of interfaces that hide the variations listed above.

UDI drivers are written in ISO standard C and do not use any compiler-specific extensions. Thus, a single driver source works regardless of compiler, operating system, or hardware platform.

UDI helps IHVs:
• Reduced number of driver variants means lower development and maintenance costs.
• Implicit synchronization and other techniques reduce driver complexity.
• High-performance design features such as resource recycling and parallelism are easy to achieve with UDI.

UDI helps operating system vendors:
• OS vendors can utilize drivers not directly targeted for their OS.
• OS vendors can more easily take advantage of IHV-provided solutions.
• UDI allows a high degree of flexibility in OS implementation.
• UDI allows high-performance implementations (such as copy-avoidance and resource recycling) while retaining support for a large number of devices via standardized drivers.

UDI provides location independence for drivers. This allows drivers to be written without consideration for where the code must operate (e.g., kernel, application, intra-OS, interrupt stack, I/O front end). Code regions may even be divided among multiple nodes in a cluster, if desired.

UDI imposes restrictions on shared memory, which, by design, prevent the driver from affecting other portions of the system. This allows the system to isolate and effectively “firewall” the driver code from the remainder of the OS, improving reliability and debuggability.

UDI scales well across all target platforms, from the low-end such as embedded systems and personal computers to high-end servers and multi-user MP platforms.

UDI provides strict versioning that allows evolution of the interfaces while preserving binary compatibility of existing drivers.

UDI facilitates rapid deployment of new I/O technologies across a broad range of systems and architectures.

UDI provides a portable, flexible, fully functional environment for device driver implementation, through a uniform set of platform- and operating system-neutral interfaces. These interfaces define paths for operating system access to device drivers for configuration, diagnostics, I/O requests and interrupt handling. They define paths for device driver access to system services, related device drivers, and underlying I/O hardware.

The UDI architecture allows developers to support a device with a single driver, applicable across the family of systems supporting the UDI environment. This will, in turn, greatly reduce the engineering cost and accelerate the availability of I/O solutions for those systems.

 

CONCLUSION

As you can see,  device management overall is an intricate, involved, and sometimes confusing topic. We have given you the basics that cover this important task required of both computer hardware and software.  As we stated before, the most important goal of device management is to ensure the devices connected to a computer work in harmony.

To that end, we provided two examples of software applications by comparing different software operating systems, Windows 2000 and Unix, that showed how each addresses device management.

Next, we discussed how hardware was a vital contributor to successful device management by comparing SCSI and IDE controllers. That comparison led us into an exciting new technology that we feel is the future of device management. UDI promises a bright future to simplify and empower the field of device management.
 


ENDNOTES


1 www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system5.htm
2 Flynn, Ida M., McHoes, Ann McIver.  Understanding Operating Systems.  Second Edition.  PWS Publishing Company, Boston, MA, (c) 1997. p. 302
3 ibidem, p. 306
4 ibidem, p. 314
5 www.KarbosGuide.com
6 Module 6c2;  Chapter: About Operating Systems, p.8
7 Flynn, Ida M., McHoes, Ann McIver.  Understanding Operating Systems.  Second
Edition.  PWS Publishing Company, Boston, MA, (c) 1997. p. 316-317
8 ibidem, p. 348
9 ibidem, p. 333
10 www.PCGuide.com
11 Flynn, Ida M., McHoes, Ann McIver.  Understanding Operating Systems.  Second
Edition.  PWS Publishing Company, Boston, MA, (c) 1997. p. 351
12 Scott Mueller, “Upgrading and Repairing PC’s – 12th ed.”, Que –2000
13 www.pcguide.com
14 www.karbosguide.com
15http://www.pcguide.com/ref/mbsys/buses/types/older.htm
16 http://www.pcguide.com/ref/mbsys/buses/types/pci.htm
17 This is a brief overview and summary of the Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) that was abstracted from various UDI papers posted on the project UDI website (www.project-UDI.org).  Credit is attributed to the copyright holders for any original concepts and ideas presented.
18 Introduction to UDI (Technical White Paper) Version 1.0, http://www.projectudi.org/Docs/pdf/UDI_tech_white_paper.pdf, August 31, 1999
19 Uniform Driver Interface Management Overview, http://www.projectudi.org/Docs/pdf/UDI_management_overview.pdf, February 4, 1999
20 One-page UDI Data Sheet, http://www.projectudi.org/Docs/pdf/UDI_data_sheet.pdf, August 13, 1999
21 UDI FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) [HTML], http://www.projectudi.org/faq.html, August 13, 1999
22 Intel Corporation White Paper, “UDI and I2O: Complementary Approaches to Portable, High-Performance I/O,” http://developer.intel.com/go/dev_guides, 1999

 


ACRONYM SHEET

AGP: Advanced Graphics Port
API:  Application Program Interface
ATA: Advanced Technology Attachment
ATAPI: AT Attachment Packet Interface
CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory
CD-ROM R: Compact Disc Read Only Memory - Read
CD-ROM RW: Compact Disc Read Only Memory Read/Write
CPU: Central Processing Unit
CSW: Channel Status Word
DMA: Direct Memory Access
FCFS: First Come First Serve
H/W:  Hardware
IDE: Integrated Device Electronics
IHV:  Independent Hardware Vendor
I/O: Input/Output
IRP: I/O Request Packet
ISA: Industry Standard Architecture
LRU: Least Recently Used
MBPS: Millions of Bits Per Second
OS:  Operating System
OSV Operating System Vendor
PC: Personal computer
PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
PIO: Programmed Input/Output
RAM: Random Access memory
SCO: Santa Clara Organization
SCSI: Small Computer Systems Interface
SSTF: Shortest Seek Time First
S/W: Software
UDI: Uniform Driver Interface
UDMA: Ultra DMA
USB: Universal Serial Bus


 

Email -- jason@grose.us
Web -- http://www.grose.us/